Infections take a toll on the global homeostasis of the infected individual. Though this is undeniable, the intrinsic mechanisms by which infections exert this impact on metabolism are often disregarded and yet to be fully understood. This Special Issue will spotlight the different steps all across the natural history of infection, from the metabolic implications of the immune response to the pathogen to the long-term consequences of severe infections. Some reviews will be more focused on a mechanistic perspective, while others will encompass the epidemiological spectrum and clinical impact of metabolic derangements that can take place during or after severe infections.
Understanding the pathophysiology underlying the metabolic modulation of the interaction between the immune system in different clinical settings, from acute infections leading to sepsis to complex chronic infections, will be the focus of the first section. The next sections will explore the two-way conversation in which previous metabolic diseases act as predisposing factors for infection and how infections determine both short- and long-term effects on the metabolism. Finally, the effect on clinical management will be explored as it can have a meaningful impact on prognosis.
Recognition and steps to better understand this interaction are key to better treatment for patients. This special issue is dedicated to paving the way in this direction.
Potential topics to be discussed in this issue include: A. Pathophysiology
1. Metabolic reprogramming in sepsis
2. Role of metabolic derangement in the pathophysiology of chronic infections: the case of chronic hepatitis C infection
3. Interplay between the immune system and metabolism in the pathogenesis of liver-related infections. From gut-liver axis to intrahepatic insulin resistance
4. Immunometabolism and endovascular/biofilm infections B. Epidemiology
1. Global burden of metabolism dysfunction-associated infections
2. Hyperglycaemia in acutely severe infections
3. Obesity as a risk factor for infection in critically ill patients C. Natural history and prognosis/complications
1. How metabolic derangement impacts prognosis in severe acute infections
2. How metabolic disturbances shape the natural history of chronic infections: tuberculosis
3. Metabolic complications in chronic HIV infection
4. Post-acute metabolic complications of severe infections D. Management
1. Prevention of complications related to metabolic disturbances during severe infections
2. How metabolic disturbances might affect the treatment of severe infections